federal theology meaning
Though the Redeemer had not, in fact, died before the earlier dispensation, he was looked upon as slain from the foundation of the world, and the dispensations of mercy were even then constituted in anticipation of his death. ii, ch. On the other hand, some have contended that the covenant of redemption is that stricter arrangement according to which believers are delivered from all sin, while that of grace is that wider one according to which a sufficient atonement was provided for all men. A controversy arose in Calvinist, Reformed, and Presbyterian circles in response to views expressed at a 2002 conference entitled The Federal Vision: … If, therefore, no other scheme bad been proposed to man, each individual of our race had lain under the penalty of a broken covenant, which subjected him to a hopeless abandonment by his Maker, to all the evils of a dying state in this world, to final death itself, and to an everlasting banishment from God in the world to come. To this must be added its actual administration in time. The theory is based on Paul’s argument in Romans 5 that “sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned” (verse 12). For example, if you want explanation of the foedus operum in brief compass, go somewhere else. *bhoidhes-) cognate with fid(ee)s: FAITH.] He simply acted in behalf of them, as a parent, or guardian, or agent often does. It uses the theological concept of a covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology . The aim of the promoters of Federal Vision Theology is to pursue a re-interpretation of the established teachings of Reformed theology. Covenant theology (also known as covenantalism, federal theology, or federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall structure of the Bible. The Federal Vision and Reformed Theology. The word “federal” is from the Latin (foedus) meaning “covenant.” Although its proponents are committed to the basics of Reformed theology, and as such, it may be viewed as a subset within covenant theology, it’s not a monolithic movement and it contains within it a number of different theological emphases. Although this is one of the most scientific and highly esteemed of the Calvinistic confessions, and is the only one among the Continental confessions which is constructed expressly upon the basis of the federal system, its authority has never been acknowledged in France, and it was received by only five of the Swiss cantons (and there mainly through the support of the civil magistrates), and finally lost all public sanction within fifty years from its promulgation (Ebrard's Christ. See synonyms for federal theology noun (In Calvinist thought) theology organized around the idea of an Old Testament Covenant of Works and a New Testament Covenant of Grace. Solid but mostly unremarkable and of limited usefulness. This fidelity to the scriptural representation compelled him to develop his system according to the successive periods of the sacred history (Ebrard, Dogmen. abbreviation; word in meaning; location; Examples: NFL, NASA, PSP, HIPAA,random Word(s) in meaning: chat "global warming" Postal codes: USA: 81657, Canada: T5A 0A7. § 74; Knapp's Christ. 1. In 1688 a further attempt was made to complete the federal system by Melchior Leydecker, another professor in Utrecht, who, though not in the strictest sense a Federalist, professedly wrote under its spirit and tendency. We set forth (I.) Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. arts. Federal Vision Theology had its beginnings in the Monroe, Louisiana, Auburn Avenue Presbyterian Church in 2002 with the teachings of Norman Shepherd. Iren. The difficulties, however, with which the system was pressed by its opponents were sought to be removed by Hermann Witsius, a successor and former pupil of Burmann in the theological chair of the University of Utrecht. That is exactly what happened; yet those who deny that Adam represented us in the Garden readily accept that Jesus represented us on the cross. It is clearly the case that Jesus took our place on th… The death of the testator is indispensable to render the grant valid, and to make the promises sure (Heb 9:16-17). In his Seven Books upon the Truth of the Christian Religion, he endeavors to trace the economy of the covenant of grace to the several Persons of the sacred Trinity, by showing that the Father reveals himself, especially in the Old Testament, as the universal Ruler maintaining the cause of justice; the Son, especially during his life 'on earth, as the: Mediator dispensing mercy; and the Holy Ghost, especially since the day of Pentecost, as the Comforter exercising divine and saving power. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? As a representative, he was in no sense numerically one and the same with those he represents, for no one can represent himself. of Doctr. See more. III. In this relation he was to act in all he did as their representative. ii, 48-52; Porter's Comp. Such an atonement is not merely hypothetical, but really opens the door of salvation to all men, who are supposed, even since the Fall, to possess all those faculties and powers which render them responsible for a compliance with the terms of salvation. Where God and man are the parties, the benefits must be all on one side and the obligations on the other. Conditions, in the proper sense of the word, on the part of God's people, are not required, but benefits are supposed to be bestowed absolutely, by free donation, and by an irrevocable will. Park's Discourses and Treatises by Edwards, Smalley, Maxey, Emmons, Griffin, Burge. iv). We set forth (I.) Formula Consensus Helvetica was composed principally by Heidegger (1675), and was adopted and sent forth to guard the churches against such views. The whole race sinned in Adam and fell with his-a not because of any confusion of personal or moral identity, not because of any transference of character from one man to another but simply because all were represented in him. An equal love towards men is supposed to have existed in each of the divine persons. And yet, so certain are all men to use their powers, and the best external means of grace, to their perdition, that no reason can be assigned for the repentance and faith of any but the covenant of grace formed in Christ before the world was (Dwight's Theol. Instit. English federal comes from the Latin noun foedus (stem foeder- ) “a formal agreement between states, peoples, or private persons, a league, treaty (of alliance or peace), a marriage compact.”. and Weeks, on the Atonement; Neander, Dogmengesch. History. Located in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, EPFL is twinned with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich). After an indefinite period this covenant was violated on man's part. SEE AMYRAUT AND LA PLACE. But confessedly all are not made partakers of salvation, and only a portion of men were eternally given to Christ by the Father. The reason that these gracious influences are not resisted they can only refer to the doctrine of free-will, and from the nature of the case they can give no farther account of it. 10:209; Fletcher's Works, i, 452; Gass, Protest. on Theol. But neither in the Septuagint nor in the New Testament is the word ever applied to the relation in which man stood before the Fall, but always to some transaction or dispensation under the covenant of grace (Ho 6:7, with this signification, is doubtful). Not that each person s-as judicially condemned to all these evils exclusively on account of the first sin, but such were the consequences which would certainly follow that act. Theol. but they think it best never to attempt a, definition of them. In 1660, STILLINGFL. Redemp. More than 250,000 words that aren't in our free dictionary, Expanded definitions, etymologies, and usage notes. Doct. The relationship. It is sometimes distinguished from the covenant of redemption, in as much as the latter phrase may be confined to the arrangement in eternity between the persons of the Trinity, and the former to the engagement into which God enters in time with believers. Many have thought that before the Fall they were endowed wit-b such supernatural gifts as secured to them the possession of their original righteousness; but, as nothing is said of these in the sacred history, and as they appeared to many inconsistent with the possibility of man's fall, most writers contend that the divine image consisted wholly in the knowledge and moral excellence which Adam had within himself. P.'W.). This is historical theology, but its focus is definitely on history rather than theology. Among the orthodox dissenters of England it has also been accepted, and found some of, its most able defenders. Instit. How to use federal in a sentence. i, att. Learn a new word every day. These have been successive in their revelation to man, since the former was an arrangement before the Fall, and the latter was not made known until after that event; and yet the latter must have been agreed upon before all worlds, whereas the former could not have been formed until the creation of man; and some contend that those who refuse their consent to the covenant of grace must necessarily remain, even now, under the obligations and penalties of the covenant of works. xxv; Schweitzer, Ref. James Strong and John McClintock; Haper and Brothers; NY; 1880. Obviously it was not left to an uncertainty whether his work would be in vain or not. Menu Search. No intellectual knowledge, or upright purposes, or pure affections could give the creature absolute immutability; and hence, with the highest and best gifts, man "being left to the freedom of his own will, fell from the estate in which he was created." Though the Heidelberg Catechism was composed before the federal theory was distinctly broached, most of the great commentaries which have been written upon it were written by Federalists. Our First Federal Head “Death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come” (v. 14). SwordSearcher Bible Software. Better Bible Study federal (adj.) its history. — The words rendered covenant are frequently used in the original Scriptures in application to God's dealings with his creatures. federalis), a method of stating divine truth, according to which all the doctrines of religion are arranged under the heads of certain covenants God has made with men. and Rev. None have ever been saved by the law of works, and none have had their hopes bounded by promises of an earthly home. per. It was indeed sufficient in objective worth to expiate for any amount of sin in any number of worlds. iii, 218 7252, 630-648). Pardon and salvation is offered to every one who hears the Gospel; time, opportunity, and some means of grace are afforded to all, and sufficient is done to leave those inexcusable who deny the Lord that bought them. God has encouraged no expectation of salvation by an obedience to the law, for, even if such an obedience were possible, no one has ever realized it, and God has provided no promises for a merely hypothetical case. It was begun by a professor by the name of Norman Shepherd, who taught systematic theology at Westminster. Only his first sin was thus imputed to them because the original covenant was broken by that alone, and Adam must afterwards have stood as a single person, and not as a public representative. Federal theology definition is - the theological system which rests upon the beliefs (1) that before the Fall man was under a covenant of works by which God through Adam promised man eternal blessedness if he kept his commandments and (2) that since the Fall man has been under a covenant of grace by which God by his grace promises the same blessings to all who believe in Christ —called also … The method he pursued has gained-for him the appellation of the Father of Biblical Theology and, laying aside the practice usual with his predecessors, of viewing divine truth in its subjective form, either as logically constructed by a human mind, or as it was supposed to lie in the divine mind around the great central doctrine of predestination, he professed to come to the Scriptures, reverently to read them, and derive his system from the inspired historical arrangement. The first, however, who bad the genius and boldness to give definiteness and completeness to the system was John Koch (Cocceius), a pupil of his, and a successor in the same chair. iii, bk. 15) teach that the Lord Jesus Christ came in this capacity and sustains this federal relationship to His people. He was the federal head for the whole human race, meaning he was the representative for all who would come after him. Bible Answer: Both of these words are common words among Christians. The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. p. 103 sq. Why he did not include the whole or a larger portion of mankind within the scope of his saving mercy, they prefer to leave out of discussion as an unapproachable mystery. The Holy Spirit, who must also be looked upon as having a part in this covenant, also engaged to become the efficient agent in the regeneration, sanctification, and glorification of the holy seed. It does not appear that the Federal system has at any time found universal acceptance in the Reformed churches. Such was the covenant of grace as formed in eternity. Have you ever wondered about these lines? The Federal Vision is a Reformed evangelical theological conversation that focuses on covenant theology, Trinitarian thinking, the sacraments of baptism and communion, biblical theology and typology, justification, and postmillennialism. Accessed 26 Dec. 2020. I (C. Bertelsmann, Gütersloh, 1949); and Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics, where he shows the many suggestive insights which the Federal theology offers to the Church today. § 74; Shedd's Hist. Source: McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia book module from SwordSearcher. He was constituted the representative of his race, and a limited period was assigned him in which the destiny of all was to be decided. The United Presbyterian Church alone is said to maintain it, with some modifications connected with the theory of a general atonement (Wardlaw, On the Extent of the Atonement, § 13-15). Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). See synonyms for federal theology noun (In Calvinist thought) theology organized around the idea of an Old Testament Covenant of Works and a New Testament Covenant of Grace. Federal Theology Monday, May 23, 2011. Dogm. New search features Acronym Blog Free tools "AcronymFinder.com . 1665), he comprises all the doctrines of the Christian religion under the two great categories of the covenants of nature and of grace. The apostle often speaks of. more than once alluded to in the Scriptures: Some have thought they had discovered an express mention of it in Ho 6:7: "They, like Adam, have transgressed the covenant" (compare Job 31:33; Ps 82:7). They have supposed that God originally anticipated the temporary character of the covenant of works, and deter-mined upon another arrangement, by which a portion of mankind might be saved from the ruins of the apostasy. It strays from biblical principles in regards to salvation, sanctification, and the role of the church. His posterity fell under the imputation of his guilt, were destitute of original righteousness, and became corrupt in their whole nature. FV stands for Federal Vision (theology). The final cause of salvation he can indeed find nowhere else than in the divine mind, and he has no occasion to impinge against the highest style of contemporary orthodoxy, and yet he succeeded in giving to theology a more practical character. The Lutheran divines have in general rejected it on account of the prominence it still gave to the doctrine of predestination, and because, when the word covenant was divested of t- he idea of a mutual compact, it offered no advantages over the words which had long been in use (Thomasius, Christi Person und Werk, § 28). The consequence was that all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, were henceforth to be treated as guilty and fallen creatures. The assembly of divines at Westminster was, in fact, contemporary with the first publication of Koch's principal work on the covenants (1648), and deserves a credit, perhaps, equal to his for the origination and precise statement of the doctrine. Other classes of Presbyterians and Calvinistic Baptists in this country use the word redemption, and even atonement, in the sense of an entire deliverance from sin; and they, of course, confine its application to the elect. Covenants; Herzog's Real-Encykl. Thee natural relation might have been, and doubtless was, the reason for his being chosen to such an office, but the legal or covenant unity was constituted by the divine designation and choice. (1662) 91. As part of its research and teaching activities, EPFL is one of the only universities to run a nuclear reactor, a fusion reactor, a Gene/Q Supercomputer, and have P3 bio-hazard facilities. By their doctrine of a general redemption, they maintain that in spite of the loss of the supernatural aids through the Fall, and the consequent incapacity of unassisted man to have such good dispositions, there is given to every one, through Christ, those gracious influences which, if not resisted, would lead on to a saving conversion (Watson's Theol. He was to share with them in the actual curse which the first sin had brought on the human race, not shrinking even from death in its most terrific form. Other principles, on which the author was more vulnerable, were introduced into the controversy; but the main features of his system soon obtained a remarkable degree of acceptance in all the Reformed churches of France, Switzerland, Holland, Scotland, and among the English Puritans. 4:chap. The Christian dispensation is the ultimate form in which the covenant of grace will be administered; for, since all national restrictions have been removed, and the Holy Spirit is given in his plenitude, no other is conceivable. § 76, 113; Hopkins's System, i, 240-250; Mercersburg Review, 10:63; Kelly, On the Covenants; Jahrb. ii, A, § 7-10, p. 153; Cunningham's Hist. He thus becomes their surety, not merely to make them inherently holy, but to perform what is required of them. The celebrated Richard Baxter, though he "subscribed to the Synod of Dort without any exception, limitations or exposition of any word," was an ardent admirer of the federal theology, as qualified by Amyraut (Preface to The Saints' Rest, 1650; Cath. But John Cameron, a Scotchman, who at different times was a professor in both institutions SEE CAMERON, and his pupils, Moise Amyraut (Amyraldus) and Joshua de la Place (Placaeus), who were associated as professors at Saumur (1633-64), proposed, and for many years maintained, a peculiar system, which attempted to reconcile it with the doctrine of a universal redemption. That covenant required obedience only for a limited period, and he has fulfilled the law during the time allotted him by the Father. In both we have the same contracting parties, God and man; the same blessing to be attained, eternal life; and the same requirement of perfect obedience; but they differ, inasmuch as the covenant of grace is a dispensation of' mercy to sinners, is through a divine Mediator, and secures the blessings of eternal life without the possibility of-a failure. federalis), a method of stating divine truth, according to which all the doctrines of religion are arranged under the heads of certain covenants God has made with men. To them alone is his perfect righteousness imputed, as if he had suffered and obeyed in their stead. of the Council of Trent, p. 177-201; Jansenius, August. The contrast and resemblance which Paul also draws between the first and the second Adam (Ro 5:12-21; 1Co 15:45) would seem to have no meaning without the understanding of a covenant with our great progenitor. Weir does give a brief outline of the doctrine at the beginning of the book, but he focuses on: 1. of Chr. viii and xiv). To such an arrangement those who had been created in the image of God could do no otherwise than yield a cheerful assent, inasmuch as far higher blessings were proposed by it than by any merely legal relation. These had become familiar with the word in relation to Christ and his people, and with all the principles involved in a covenant with Adam. Federal OED (Oxford English Dictionary) [a. F. fédéral, f. L. type *f(ae)der(aa)l-is, f. f(ae)der-, f(ae)dus: Covenant (:- pre-Lat. For several key reasons, Federal Vision Theology is not generally accepted as sound doctrine. Adapted to all, and sufficient for all as his work may be, it must have been specially designed to effect the salvation only of the covenant people. ii, 412). Personally he lost the moral image of God, communion with God, corporeal life, a place in Paradise, and the hope of a blessed immortality. Not only was he, as a moral being, under obligation to conform to the law written upon his heart, and to obey the positive precept given to test his confidence in God, but eternal life was promised him on condition of his obedience. Repeat. I. Doctrine. It is not denied that by these expressions he usually meant the Mosaic or Sinaitic dispensation, in distinction from the evangelical, but, it is thought that such a dispensation could be designated a covenant of works only because it was a republication of a moral law to be a rule of conduct, but not a covenant of life, for a particular nation. i, § 1). § 224; New Englander, 27:469-516; Bibl. Christianshave no problem with Jesus representing us on the cross, but they often reject the idea of Adam representing us in the garden; but to reject one is to reject the other. Deutsch. Ever since that event, if any are saved it must be by an unconditional grant through Jesus Christ. Don't trust your Bible study to a mere web search. ; Buck's, Simith's, and Kitto's Dictionaries, art. v; Dick's Lect. its history. To constitute a natural ground for this headship, he was to become a man, uniting divinity in one person with humanity. The latter was the aspect in which the covenant of grace has usually been presented icy its advocates. (C. Federate definition is - united in an alliance or federation : federated. Notwithstanding the objections raised against the federal system, its principles were carried still further forward with fearless and logical consistency by Francis Burmann, a pupil of Koch, and a professor in the University of Utrecht. The only difference between them was that salvation was presented with greater obscurity, under more symbolical forms, with narrower restrictions to families and nations, and with less enlarged measures of the divine Spirit at some periods than at others. How to use federate in a sentence. Salvation has in all cases been by Christ, even where the subjects of it knew little or nothing respecting him. The events of human history were regarded in their anthropological aspect as well as related to the divine efficiency. They are inconsistent. In this section of the site, the reader will find a number of works that hold a Christian view, Puritan view, a Reformed view, of the Regulative Principle, and some other important matters.. Leyden, 1704, and Compend of Theology, Berne, 1703) were the organic union of the three great tendencies of Scholasticism, Federalism, and Cartesianism, and have obtained general acceptance in the schools of Holland; and in those of F. A. Lampe, the pastor of several influential congregations and a professor in Utrecht (1720-27), whose doctrinal and practical works in the German vernacular have had the honor of reconciling Pietism to the orthodox Church, and have sometimes had a popularity scarcely inferior to the authorized Catechism of the national Church. The seal by which this covenant was ratified and signified was at least the tree of life, lent a sacramental character has been attributed to almost everything mentioned is the scriptural account of Paradise. AND FEDERAL THEOLOGY Richard C. Barcellos* Much has been written in the last few decades concerning the reassessment or reappraisal of seventeenth-century Reformed orthodoxy.1 Older scholarship viewed the Seventeenth Century as a period of downward movement, increasingly tending toward rationalism and proof-texting, driven by a central-dogma (i.e., the decree of predestination), … Of these alone can he be regarded as the proper head and representative, since they alone are ingrafted into him by a living and active faith. Essays, vol. Federal theology represents these requirements as being met in Christ, the second Adam, in whom a new race begins. Federal theology holds that the Scriptures (see especially Rom. 5 and 1 Cor. This whole system was strenuously opposed by the elder Spanheim, of Geneva and Leyden; J. H. Heidegger, of Zurich; and Francis Turretin, of Geneva. The effort to find a sufficient reason in the anticipated circumstances of men has usually proved so confusing to the finite intellect, that most thinkers have concluded to leave the origin of discriminating grace where the Scriptures have left it, in the mere good pleasure (beneplacitum) of God. With — The fundamental idea of the system is that man has always stood towards God in the relation of a covenant, though a covenant of a peculiar character. The 2002 Auburn Avenue Pastors conference argued for a sort of retrieval. And yet there was an obvious tendency in that direction among the Reformed churches of the Calvinistic school. In the British Islands, and especially in those churches which adhere to the confession of faith put forth by the Synod of Westminster (1643-8), we have the stronghold of the federal system. Learn more. Lect. We have reason to suppose, also, that their powers were quite ample for the performance of the condition. The representatives of the English Church at the Synod of Dort (1618-19), and especially bishop Davenant, had maintained a system similar to that of Amyraut, and a large party in that Church have always held views based upon the federal theology. Adam was a public person. Literature.-On the general system and history: Turretin's Inst. There is even a virtual implication of mutual consent and obligations, for on the one hand God graciously binds himself to the performance of certain engagements with the view of securing results that shall manifest his glory; and man freely consents when, with this understanding, he enters upon a course of obedience., Such a promise on God's part, suspended upon the performance of a condition on man's, is a covenant; The advocates of this system have usually made but two such covenants: viz. 'S dealings with his creatures difficult because of the Church the aspect which. 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